Woven fabrics are made by using two or more sets of yarn interlaced at right angles to each other. Much variety is produced by weaving. Woven fabrics are generally more durable. They can be easily cut into different shapes and are excellent for producing styles in garments. However the raw edges ravel or fray easily and need to be protected. Fabrics having more fabric count (number of wrap and weft yearns present) keep the shape well. Low count fabrics are less durable and may snag or stretch.
Woven fabrics are manufactured in different widths depending on the end use. The fabrics used for apparels usually contain 90 cms width. The Sheeting materials are generally made having a width of 160 cm/140cms and 150cms/180 cms.
Woven Fabric Types
It is a stiff coated fabric made from a light weight loosely woven fabric, impregnated with adhesives and fillers. This fabric is used as interfacing so as to provide support and shape rentention to necklines, collars, belts, cuffs, waist bands, button closures etc in garments. They are also used as reinforcements for hand bags and other articles.
Cambric a light weight fabric woven in plain weave and produced with a stiff finish. It is suitable for women's dresses and children's dresses that require crispness.
Casement is a medium weight cotton fabric made of closesly packed thick warp yarns. Generally it is used for curtains, tablelinen, upholstery and rarely used for dresses.
It is popular light weight sheer fabric having open weave. It has a low count fabric consisting of carded yarns. Originally it was used for wrapping cheese or meat and hence the name. It is neither strong nor durable. It is finished in a variety of ways that attract the consumer. It is used not only for women's and children's dresses but also for drapery fabrics. Due to its open structure, it does not require much ironing.
Chiffon fabrics are sheer, light weight fabrics made of hard twisted yarns. Originally these are made in silk fabrics but today they are made from rayon or polyester. They are used for sarees and women's evening wear. The fabrics encounter with the problem of shrinkage.
Chintz is a medium weight, plain woven cotton yarn. It is often given a glazed finish which may be temporary or semi permanent glazed chintz are available in solid colour as well as printed with floral prints. These are often made from blends of cotton and polyester or rayon. They are used for skits, dresses, blouses, pyjamas, aprons and draperies.
It is a cut pile fabric available in solid colours. The cut pile fibres are seen in the form of ribs on the surface. It is mainly used for pants, jeans and shirts.
A silk fabric is originally characterised by a crinkle, puckered surface formed by highly twisted yarns in the warp or weft or both. By using ordinary yarns similar crepe effects can also be produced. Synthetic fabrics also impart crepe effect finish. It is used for sarees, shirts, women and children's dresses.
It was traditionally a yarn dyed, warp faced cotton twill fabric. Warp is usually coloured (mostly blue, maroon, green and brown) and weft is white. This fabric is made of two weights for sports wear and overalls. It's use as jeans has made it very popular and so the nature of denim is also changed to suit the trend. It is often napped, printed and made with stretch yarn
It is a warp faced twill woven fabric. It has a stiff finish. Originally it was produced in white and now it is available in solid colours. It is mairly used for pants, knickers and uniforms.
Flannel is a woollen fabric woven in plain or twill weave having characteristic soft handle. It looks like a bulky fabric due to the milling that is usually done to this fabric. Flannel fabric is used for suits and pants and infacnt's clothing.
This fabric is popular as cleaning fabric due to its extreme softness. This is also used to protect children from cold atmosphere.
Gabardine is a closely woven, clear finished warp faced twill fabric. It contains more number of warp yarns than weft yearns and also more durable. It is usually woven in 2/1 or 2/2 twill and has a raised diagonal twill effect on the right side. It largely used for rain coats, suitings and sports wear.
Georgette is a sheer light weight fabric, woven in plain weave. It has a characteristic rough texture produced by hard twisted ply, yarns both in warp and weft. Originally it was made in silk, but today it is produced in rayon and polyester too.
It's mainly suitable for women's evening wear.
Kashmir silk is a silk fabric produced in plain weave and is either embroidered or printed. The motifs used are characteristic of Kashmir. It is used for shirts, women's wear and sarees. Kashmir shawls are woven in twill weave and is usually embroidered with traditional Kashmiri embroidery.
Khadi is a term used to a wide variety of fabics that are hand spun and hand woven. They are produced in mainly one cotton fibre, blends of two or more fibres. They are known for durability, and simplicity. The fabrics can be suitings dhoties overalls and household textiles.
Lawn is a fine sheet, light weight, crisp fabric either made in cotton or linen. Various finishes are given to this fabric, in which the fabric is called by the name of the finish. It is mainly used as lining in dress.
It is an Indian term generally applied to fine cotton fabric slightly heavier, than muslin. These are often printed fabrics. They find use as sarees.
Muslin is a light weight open cloth of plain weave. It may be used as grey or bleached and dyed. It is used as household textiles and dress materials.
Organdy Originally it is a lawn fabric which is given a stiff finish. Acid is used for this finish to make the fabric transparent and stiff. It is mainly used for women's wear.
Poplin is a medium weight, cotton fabric hving a fine weft rib. it is generally used for shirting, dresses and upholstery.
These are primarily used for bed coverings. They are medium weight, closely woven fabrics woven eigther in plain or twin weave. Sheeting fabrics are made in different widths. High quality cotton sheetings are made in plain weve with a width of 64" x 58" and in twill weave with a width of 60"x72".
Taffeta Taffeta is a smooth, crisp, transparent fabric having a fine rib. Originally it is made with silk fibres but now it is also made in rayon. It has a characteristic finish which produces crispness. It is used as women's evening wear.
It is a fine fabric either made in silk or man made fibre. They are characteristically interwoven with gold or silver threads. It is produced in rich colours and they are used as women's dress material, sarees etc.
It is a warp cut pile fabric, originally made from silk. It is also produced in Rayon. The dense cut pile makes it very soft and lustrous. It is used as dress materials for women and children. It is also produced with special high twisted yarns which are single or ply yarns. Based on the yarns used and twist given, they are named as semi violes (single yarns1x1) full voiles. (ply yarns 2x2) or half voile (double in warp and single in weft 2x1).
Knitting is the construction of an elastic, porous fabric, created by interlocking yarns by means of needles. Knitted fabrics can be made much more quickly and easily than woven fabrics at comparatively less cost. Knitted fabrics are generally light in weight, comfortable in wear even during travel, but yet require little care to keep their neat appearance. The tendency of knits to resist wrinkling is another factor to boost up their popularity. Knitted fabrics are used for designing active clothing such as sports clothing. Their elastic nature permits for abundant physical activity. Knitted fabrics are produced by two general methods. Warp knitting and weft knitting. They are made as flat or tubular fabrics depending on the end use. Tubular fabrics may not have any seams at the sides where as flat fabrics are treted just like woven fabrics.
Knitted Fabric Types
These fabrics are weft knitted and are characterised by distinct but flat vertical lines on the face and dominant horizontal ribs on the reverse side. Fancy varieties are also produced. They are used in making hoisery sweaters, sports wear etc.
These fabrics are made by using rib stitch with two sets of needles. These fabrics are used where stretch is desired as they show excellent degree of elasticity. Rib knits are warm to wear. They are used as apparels such as shirts, blouses, body stockings etc.
Double knits are produced by the interlock stitch. The fabrics is riblike in appearance on both the sides. Decorative fabrics are also produced by jacquard attachment. These fabrics show good dimensional stability and are easy to cut and sew. They do not require any seam finishes as the fabric does not ravel. They are firm, heavier, less stretchable and more resilient. Double knits are commonly made from polyester, cetate or wool fibres. They find use as every durable apparels.
Knitted fur fabrics
A wide range of knitted fur fabrics are available in the market. The fabrics are produced by pile knitting. The extra set of soft filament yarns used form the pile on the surface of the fabric. The pile is cut and the fabric are finished similar to the original fur. These fabrics are mainly used for coats and trimmings for other dresses.